AJIBM  Vol.3 No.3 , July 2013
Determinants of E-Learning Acceptance: An Empirical Study in the Tunisian Context

This study proposes to identify the determinants of accepting e-learning by the employees of the Tunisian Post Office using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). An empirical study was conducted over a sample of 200 Tunisian employees. Our results indicated that for the Tunisian employees perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, mastery of new information and communication technologies (NICT) as individual factors as well as the proposed technique as an organisational factor represented the main determinants of e-learning acceptance.

Cite this paper
B. Rym, B. Olfa and B. Mélika, "Determinants of E-Learning Acceptance: An Empirical Study in the Tunisian Context," American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 307-321. doi: 10.4236/ajibm.2013.33036.
[1]   C. Ho and R. Dzeng, “Construction Safety Training via E-Learning: Learning Effectiveness and User Satisfaction,” Computers & Education, Vol. 55, No. 2, 2010, pp. 858-867. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2010.03.017

[2]   W. T. Wong and N. T. N. Huang, “The Effect of E-Learning System Service Quality and Users’ Acceptance on Organizational Learning,” International Journal of Business and Information, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2011, pp. 205-225.

[3]   K. Tyler, “E-Learning Not Just for Enormous Companies Anymore,” HR Magazine, Vol. 4, No. 5, 2001, pp. 82-88.

[4]   A. Vicere, “Ten Observations about E-Learning and Leadership Development,” Human Resource Planning, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2000, pp. 34-46.

[5]   C. Gueye and S. Boussaguet, “Management des Connaissances: Une Approche en Termes de Création de Valeur,” Les actes du colloque de l’IAS, Toulouse, 30-31 Aout 2001, pp. 91-97.

[6]   M. Thevenet, “Approches de la Formation Continue en Entreprise,” Revue Francaise de Gestion, Vol. 54, No. 65-66, 1987, pp. 61-69.

[7]   F. D. Davis, R. P. Bagozzi and P. R. Warshaw, “User Acceptance of Computer Technology: A Comparison of Two Theoretical Models,” Management Science, Vol. 35, No. 8, 1989, pp. 982-1003. doi:10.1287/mnsc.35.8.982

[8]   Y. C. Lee, “An Empirical Investigation into Factors Influencing the Adoption of an E-Learning System,” Online Information Review, Vol. 30, No. 5, 2006, pp. 1468-4527. doi:10.1108/14684520610706406

[9]   W. Minhong, “Integrating Organizational, Social, and Individual Perspectives in Web 2.0-Based Workplace E-Learning,” Information Systems Frontiers, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2009, pp. 191-252.

[10]   P.-C. Sun, R. J. Tsai, G. Finger, Y.-Y. Chen and D. Yeh. “What Drives Successful E-Learning? An Empirical Investigation of the Critical Factors Influencing Learner Satisfaction,” Computers and Education, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2006, pp. 1183-1202. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2006.11.007

[11]   S. Mackay and G. Stockport, “Blended Learning, Classroom and E-Learning,” The Business Review Cambridge, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2006, pp. 82-87.

[12]   P. Roussel, “Pour un Développement de L’e-Formation Dans le Prolongement du E-Management,” Les Notes du LIRHE, No 354, 2001. http://www.univ-tlsel .fr/lirhe/J

[13]   M. C. Lee, “Explaining and Predicting Users’ Continuance Intention toward E-Learning: An Extension of the Expectation-Confirmation Model,” Computers & Education, Vol. 54, No. 2, 2010, pp. 506-516. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2009.09.002

[14]   S. Hrastinski, “The Potential of Synchronous Communication to Enhance Participation in Online Discussion,” 28th International Conference on Information Systems, Montreal, 9-12 December 2007, pp. 102-112.

[15]   Y. M. Cheng, “Antecedents and Consequences of E-Learning Acceptance,” Information System Journal, Vol. 21, 2011, pp. 269-299. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2575.2010.00356.x

[16]   M. Favier, M. Kalika and J. Trahand, “E-Learning/E-Formation: Implication Pour les Organisations,” Systèmes d’Information et Management, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2004, pp. 55-65.

[17]   R. Meissonier and E. Houzé, “Performance du E-Learning: Un Premier Retour D’expérience sur les Résultats des Apprenants,” 9ème Colloque de L'Association Information et Management, Evry, 26-28 May 2004, pp. 67-87.

[18]   D. Carl, “Electronic Distance Education: Positives Outweigh Negatives,” Technological Horizons in Education, Vol. 18, No. 10, 1991, pp. 67-71.

[19]   M. J. Rosenberg, “E-Learning: Strategies for Delivering Knowledge in the Digital Age,” McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001.

[20]   M. Mingasson, “Le Guide du E-Learning: L’organisation Apprenante,” Editions d’Organisation, Paris, 2002.

[21]   C. Collins, D. Buhalis and M. Peters, “Enchancing SMEs’ Business Performance through the Internet and E-Learning Platforms,” Education and Training, Vol. 45, No. 8-9, 2003, pp. 483-494. doi:10.1108/00400910310508874

[22]   K. Vaughan and A. Mac Vicar, “Employees Pre-Implementation Attitudes and Perceptions to E-Learning: A Banking Case Study Analysis,” Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 28, No. 5, 2004, pp. 400-413. doi:10.1108/03090590410533080

[23]   M. N. Tahir, “E-Learning in Public Organizations,” Public Personnel Management, Vol. 33, No. 1, 2004, pp. 79-88.

[24]   J. O. Uhomoidhi, “Implementing E-Learning in Northern Ireland: Prospects and Challenges,” Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2006, pp. 4-14. doi:10.1108/10650740610639697

[25]   J. C. R. Tseng, W. L. Tsai, G. J. Hwang and P. H. Wu, “An Efficient and Effective Approach to Developing Engineering E-Learning Courses,” Journal of Distance Education Technologies, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2007, pp. 37-53. doi:10.4018/jdet.2007010104

[26]   D. Zhang and L. Zhou, “Enhancing E-Learning with Interactive Multimedia,” Information Resources Management Journal, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2003, pp. 1-14. doi:10.4018/irmj.2003100101

[27]   Z. S. Imamoglu, “An Empirical Analysis Concerning the User Acceptance of E-learning,” Journal of American Academy of Business Cambridge, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2007, pp. 132-137.

[28]   T. Oppenheimer, “The Computer Delusion,” Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 280, No.1, 1997, pp. 45-62.

[29]   R. Kraut, V. Lundmark, S. Patterson, S. Kiesler and W. Scherlis, “Internet Paradox: A Social Technology That Reduces Social Involvement and Psychological Wellbeing,” American Psychologist, Vol. 53, No. 3, 1998, pp. 39-43.

[30]   F. D. Davis, “Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use and User Acceptance of Information Technology,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1989, pp. 319-340. doi:10.2307/249008

[31]   C. C. Bienstock, M. B. Royne, D. Sherrell and T. F. Stafford, “An Expanded Model of Logistics Service Quality: Incorporating Logistics Information Technology,” International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 113, No. 1, 2008, pp. 205-222. doi:10.1016/j.ijpe.2007.03.023

[32]   V. Venkatesh and F. D. Davis, “A Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: Four Longitudinal Studies,” Management Science, Vol. 46, No.2, 2000, pp. 186-204. doi:10.1287/mnsc.

[33]   K. Mathieson, “Predicting User Intention: Comparing Technology Acceptance Model with the Theory of Planned Behavior,” Information System Research, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1991, pp. 173-191. doi:10.1287/isre.2.3.173

[34]   R. L. Thompson, C. A. Higgins and J. M. Howell, “Personnel Computing: Toward a Conceptual Model of Utilization,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1991, pp. 125-143. doi:10.2307/249443

[35]   V. Venkatesh and F. D. Davis, “A Model of the Antecedents of Perceived Ease of Use, Development and Test,” Decision Sciences, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1996, pp. 451-481. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5915.1996.tb01822.x

[36]   M. Fishbein and I. Ajzen, “Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research,” Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1975.

[37]   E. M. Van Raaij and J. J. L. Schepers, “The Acceptance and Use of a Use Virtual Learning Environment in China,” Computer & Education, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2008, pp. 838-852. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2006.09.001

[38]   S. Taylor and P. A. Todd, “Understanding Information Technology Usage: A Test of Competing Models,” Information System Research, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1995, pp. 144-176. doi:10.1287/isre.6.2.144

[39]   A. Bhattacherjee, “Acceptance of Internet Applications Services: The Case of Electronic Brokerages,” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics-Part A: Systems and Humans, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2000, pp. 411-420. doi:10.1109/3468.852435

[40]   C. L. Hsu and H. P. Lu, “Why Do People Play On-Line Games? An Extended TAM with Social Influences and Flow Experience,” Information & Management, Vol. 41, No. 7, 2004, pp. 853-868. doi:10.1016/j.im.2003.08.014

[41]   E. M. Van Raaij and J. J.-L. Schepers, “The Acceptance and Use of a Use Virtual Learning Environment in China,” Computer & Education, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2008, pp. 838-852. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2006.09.001

[42]   H. Barki and J. Harwick, “Measuring User Participation, User Involvement and User Attitude,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1994, pp. 59-82. doi:10.2307/249610

[43]   V. Venkatesh, M. G. Morris and G. B. Davis, “User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2003, pp. 425-478.

[44]   T. Lassouad, “Les Déterminants de L’adoption de L’e-leaning: Etude Empirique au Sein de L’entreprise Tunisienne,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Université Jean Moulin Lyon 3, France, 2010.

[45]   V. Venkatesh, “Determinants of Perceived Ease of Use: Integrating Control, Intrinsic Motivation and Emotion into the Technology Acceptance Model,” Information Systems Research, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2000, pp. 342-365. doi:10.1287/isre.11.4.342.11872

[46]   B. C. Lee, J. O. Yoon and I. Lee, “Learners’ Acceptance of E-Learning in South Korea: Theories and Results,” Computers & Education, Vol. 53, No. 4, 2009, pp. 320-329. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2009.06.014

[47]   A. Bandura, “Social Foundations of Thought and Action,” Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1986.

[48]   J. C. Roca, C. M. Chiu and F. J. Martínez, “Understanding E-Learning Continuance Intention: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model,” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 64, No. 8, 2006, pp. 683-696. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2006.01.003

[49]   I. T. J. Brown, “Individual and Technological Factors Affecting Perceived Ease of Use of Web-Based Learning Technologies in Developing Country,” The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, Vol. 9, No. 5, 2002, pp. 1-15.

[50]   C. S. Ong, J. Y. Lai and Y. S. Wang, “Factors Affecting Engineers’ Acceptance of Asynchronous E-Learning Systems in High-Tech Companies,” Information & Management, Vol. 41, No. 6, 2004, pp. 795-804. doi:10.1016/j.im.2003.08.012

[51]   P. Legris, J. Ingham and P. Collerette, “Why Do People Use Information Technology? A Critical Review of the Technology Acceptance Model,” Information & Management, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2003, pp. 191-204. doi:10.1016/S0378-7206(01)00143-4

[52]   L. Stoel and K. H. Lee, “Modelling the Effect of Experience on Student Acceptance of Web-Based Courseware,” Internet Research, Vol. 13, No. 5, 2003, pp. 364-374. doi:10.1108/10662240310501649

[53]   E. W. T. Ngai, J. K. L. Poon and Y. H. C. Chan, “Empirical Examination of Adoption of Web CT Using TAM,” Computers and Education, Vol. 48, No. 2, 2007, pp. 250-267. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2004.11.007

[54]   S. H. Liu, H. L. Liao and J. A. Pratt, “Impact of Media Richness and Flow on E-Learning Technology Acceptance,” Computers & Education, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2009, pp. 599-607. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2008.11.002

[55]   M. K. O. Lee, C. M. K. Cheung and Z. Chen, “Acceptance of Internet-Based Learning Medium: The Role of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation,” Information & Management, Vol. 42, No. 8, 2005, pp. 1095-1104. doi:10.1016/j.im.2003.10.007

[56]   R. Saadé and B. Bahli, “The Impact of Cognitive Absorption on Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use in On-Line Learning: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model,” Information & Management, Vol. 42, No. 2, 2005, pp. 317-327. doi:10.1016/j.im.2003.12.013

[57]   C. S. Ong and J. Y. Lai, “Gender Differences in Perceptions and Relationships among Dominants of E-Learning Acceptance,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 22, No. 5, 2006, pp. 816-829. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2004.03.006

[58]   Y. C. Lee, “The Role of Perceived Resources in Online Learning Adoption,” Computers & Education, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2008, pp. 1423-1438. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2007.01.001

[59]   J. C. Roca and M. Gagné, “Understanding E-Learning Continuance Intention in the Workplace: A Self Determination Theory Perspective,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 24, No. 4, 2008, pp. 1585-1604. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2007.06.001

[60]   P. D. Chatzoglou, L. Sarigiannidis, E. Vraimaki and E. Diamantidis, “Investigating Greek Employees’ Intention to Use Web-Based Training,” Computers & Education, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2009, pp. 877-889. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2009.05.007

[61]   N. O. Ndubisi, “Factors of Online Learning Adoption: A Comparative Juxtaposition of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Technology Acceptance Model,” International Journal on E-Learning, Vol. 5, No. 4, 2006, pp. 571-591.

[62]   L. G. Vallerand, “Vers une Methodologie de Validation Transculturelles des Questionnaires Psychologiques: Implications Pour la Recherche en Langue Francaise,” Psychologie Canadienne, Vol. 30, No. 4, 1989, pp. 662-680.

[63]   V. Venkatesh and F. D. Davis, “A Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: Four Longitudinal Studies,” Management Science, Vol. 46, No. 2, 2000, pp. 186-204. doi:10.1287/mnsc.

[64]   N. Schillewaert, M. J. Ahearne, R. T. Frambach and R. K. Moenaert, “Acceptance of Information Technology in the Sales Force,” E-Business Research Centre, The Pennsylvania State, 2001.

[65]   D. Compeau, C. A. Higgins and S. Huff, “Computer Self-Efficacy: Development of a Measure and Initial Test,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1995, pp. 189-211. doi:10.2307/249688

[66]   S. Guerrero, “Contribution à l’Efficacité du E-Learning ,” Colloque de l’IAS, Toulouse, 30-31 August 2001, pp. 161-167.

[67]   J. B. Arbaugh, “Virtual Classroom Characteristics and Student Satisfaction with Internet-Based MBA,” Journal of Management Education, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2000, pp. 32-54. doi:10.1177/105256290002400104

[68]   I. Ajzen and M. Fishbein, “Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior,” Prentice-Hall Inc, Englewood Cliffs, 1980

[69]   A. Bhattacherjee, “An Empirical Analysis of the Antecedents of Electronic Commerce Service Continuance,” Decision Support Systems, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2001, pp. 201-214. doi:10.1016/S0167-9236(01)00111-7

[70]   J. C. Anderson and D. W. Gerbing, “Structural Equation Modelling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two Step Approach,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 103, No. 3, 1988, pp. 411-423. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411

[71]   R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny, “The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic and Statistical Considerations,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 51, No. 6, 1986, pp. 1173-1182. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173

[72]   K. A. Pituch and Y. K. Lee, “The Influence of System Characteristics on E-Learning Use,” Computer & Education, Vol. 47, No. 2, 2006, pp. 222-244. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2004.10.007

[73]   C. M. Jackson, S. Chow and R. A. Leitch “Toward an Understanding of the Behavioral Intention to Use an Information System,” Decision Sciences, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1997, pp. 357-389. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5915.1997.tb01315.x

[74]   E. Karahana, D. W. Straub and N. L. Chervany, “Information Technology Adoption across Time: Across Sectional Comparison of Pre-Adoption and Post-Adoption Beliefs,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1999, pp. 183-213. doi:10.2307/249751

[75]   M. Igbaria and M. Tan, “The Consequences of Information Technology Acceptance on Subsequent Individual Performance,” Information & Management, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1997, pp. 113-121. doi:10.1016/S0378-7206(97)00006-2

[76]   R. P. Bagozzi, “On the Concept of Intentional Social Action in Consumer Behavior,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2000, pp. 388-396. doi:10.1086/317593