NS  Vol.5 No.1 , January 2013
Screening of antibacterial activity in marine green, red and brown macroalgae from the western coast of Libya
Marine macroalgae are considered as an excellent source of bioactive compounds which has a broad range of biological activities including antibacterial and antioxidant. Crude methanolic and water extracts of 19 marine algal species (6 Chlorophyta, 8 Phaeophyta and 5 Rhodophyta) collected from the western coast of Libya were evaluated for antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria (4 Gram-positive, 4 Gram-nega- tive). The extracts showed a significant antibacterial activity against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus epidermidis) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas aerugi- nosa). The algal aqueous and methanolic extracts displayed different degrees of antimicrobial activities against different bacteria, in some cases methanolic extracts showed higher antibacterial activity than aqueous extracts. Among tested algae, Brown algae namely Cystoseira crinite exhibited the highest antibacterial activity among tested algal species.

Cite this paper
Alghazeer, R. , Whida, F. , Abduelrhman, E. , Gammoudi, F. and Azwai, S. (2013) Screening of antibacterial activity in marine green, red and brown macroalgae from the western coast of Libya. Natural Science, 5, 7-14. doi: 10.4236/ns.2013.51002.
[1]   Skulberg, O.M. (2000) Microalgal as a source of bioactive molecules-experience from Cyanophyte research. Journal of Applied Phycology, 12, 341-348. doi:10.1023/A:1008140403621

[2]   Sithranga, N. and Kathiresan, K. (2010) Anticancer drugs from marine flora: An overview. Journal of Oncology, 21, 41-86. doi:10.1155/2010/214186

[3]   Bhatnagar, I. and Kim S. (2010) Immense essence of excellence: Marine microbial bioactive compounds. Marin Drugs, 8, 2673-2701. doi:10.3390/md8102673

[4]   Singh, A. and Chaudhary, B. (2010) Preliminary phycochemical analysis and in vitro antibacterial screening of Pithophora oedogonia (Mont.) Wittrock: A freshwater green alga forming mats in the water bodies. Journal of Algal Biomass Utilization, 1, 33-41.

[5]   Bouhlal, R. Riadi, H. and Bourgougnon, N. (2010) Antiviral activity of the extracts of Rhodophyceae from Morocco. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 7968-7975.

[6]   De Felício, R., Dealbuquerque, S., Young, M.C.M. Yokoya, N.S. and Debonsi, H.M. (2010) Trypanocidal, leishmanicidal and antifungal potential from marine red alga Bostrychia tenella J. Agardh (Rhodomelaceae, Ceramiales). Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 52, 763-769. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2010.02.018

[7]   Bouhlal, R., Haslin, C., Chermann, J.C., Colliec-Jouault, S., Sinquin, C., Simon, G., Cerantola, S., Riadi, H. and Bourgougnon, N. (2011) Antiviral activities of sulfated polysaccharides isolated from Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Rhodophytha, Gigartinales) and Boergeseniella thuyoides (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales). Marine Drugs, 9, 1187-1209. doi:10.3390/md9071187

[8]   Kim, S.K. and Karadeniz, F. (2011) Anti-HIV activity of extracts and compounds from marine algae. In Advanced Food and Nutrition Research, 64, 255-265. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-387669-0.00020-X

[9]   Kudaa, T., Tsunekawaa, M., Gotoa, H. and Arakib, Y. (2005) Antioxidant properties of four edible algae harvested in the Noto Peninsula, Japan. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 18, 625-633. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2004.06.015

[10]   Alghazeer, R., Whida, F., Al-Najjar, A., Majdoob, H. and Al-Mazoghi, E. (2008) Assessment of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of some marine algae from the Libyan Coast. Ain Shams Science Bulletin, 46, 67-78.

[11]   Devi, G.K., Manivannan, K., Thirumaran, G., Rajathi, F.A.A. and Anantharaman, P. (2011) In vitro antioxidant activities of selected seaweeds from Southeast coast of India. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 4, 205- 211. doi:10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60070-9

[12]   Vineela, C.H. and Elizabeth, K.M. (2005) Antimicrobial activity of marine algae of Visakhapatnam city, Andhra Pradesh. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, 7, 209-212.

[13]   Tuney, I., Cadirci, B.H., Unal, D. and Sukatar, A. (2006) Antimicrobial activities of the extracts of marine algae from the coast of Urla (Izmir, Turkey). Turkish Journal of Biology, 30, 171-175.

[14]   Patra J.K., Rath S.K., Jena, K., Rathod, V.K. and Thatoi, H. (2008) Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of seaweed (Sargassum spp.). Extract: A study on inhibition of glutathione-S-transferase activity. Turkish Journal of Biology, 32, 119-125.

[15]   Taskin, E., Ozturk, M., Taskin, E. and Kurt, O. (2007) Antibacterial activities of some marine algae from the Aegean Sea (Turkey). African Journal of Biotechnology, 6, 2746-2751.

[16]   Guedes, A., Amaro, M. and Malcata, F. (2011) Microalgae as Sources of Carotenoids. Marine Drugs, 9, 625-644. doi:10.3390/md9040625

[17]   Fitton, J.H. (2006) Antiviral properties of marine algae. In: Critchley, A.T., Ohno, M. and Largo, D.B., Eds., World Seaweed Resources, ETI Information Services, Wokingham, 7.

[18]   Mtolera, M.S.P. and Semesi, A.K. (1996) Antimicrobial activity of extracts from six green algae from Tanzania. In: Bj?rk, M., Semesi, A.K., Pedersén, M. and Bergman, B., Eds., Current Trends in Marine Botanical Research in the East African Region, SIDA, 211-217.

[19]   Bhacuni, D.S. and Rawat, D.S. (2005) Bioactive marine natural products. Springer, New York, 400.

[20]   Priyadharshini, S., Bragadeeswaran, S., Prabhu, K. and Ran, S.S. (2011) Antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of seaweed extracts Ulva fasciata (Delile 1813) from Mandapam, Southeast coast of India. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 1, S38-S39. doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60118-4

[21]   Nizamuddin, M., West, J.A. and Me?ez, E.G. (1979) A list of marine algae from Libya. Botanica Marina, 22, 465-476. doi:10.1515/botm.1979.22.7.465

[22]   Chiheb, I., Riadi, H., Martinez-Lopez, J., Dominguez, S., Gomez, V.J., Bouziane, H. and Kadiri, M. (2009) Screening of antibacterial activity in marine green and brown macroalgae from the coast of Morocco. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8, 1258-1262.

[23]   Fadeyi, M.G., Adeoye, A.E. and Olowokodejo, J.D. (1989) Epidermal and phytochemical studies with genus of Boerhavia (Nyetanginaceae). International Journal of Crude Drug Research, 29, 178-184.

[24]   Odebiyi, A. and Sofowora, A.E. (1990) Phytochemical screening of nigerian medicinal plants. Part III. Lloydia, 41, 234-246.

[25]   Harborne, J.B. (1992) Phytochemical methods. Chapman and Hall Publications, London, 7-8.

[26]   Abulude, F.O., Onibon, V.O. and Oluwatoba, F. (2004) Nutrition and nutritional composition of some tree barks. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 13, 43- 49.

[27]   Abulude, F.O. (2007) Phytochemical screening and mineral contents of leaves of some Nigerian woody plants. Research Journal of Phytochemistry, 1, 33-39. doi:10.3923/rjphyto.2007.33.39

[28]   Manilal, A., Sujith, S., Kiran, G.S., Selvin, J., Shakir, C., Gandhimathi, R. and Panikkar, M.V.N. (2009) Biopotentials of seaweeds collected from southwest coast of India. Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 17, 67-73.

[29]   Lima-Filho, M., Carvalho, U. and Freitas, M. (2002) Antibacterial activity of extracts of six Macroalgae from the Northeastern Brazilian Coast. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 33, 311-313. doi:10.1590/S1517-83822002000400006

[30]   Daud, A., Gallo, A. and Sanchez, A. (2005) Antimicrobial properties of Phrygilanthus acutifolius. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 99, 193-197. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.01.043

[31]   Shan, B., Cai, Y.Z., Brooks, J.D. and Corke, H. (2007) The in vitro antibacterial activity of dietary spice and medicinal herb. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 117, 112-119. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.03.003

[32]   Wang, C., Mingyan, W., Jingyu, S., Li D. and Longmei, Z. (1998) Research on the chemical constituents of Acanthophora spicifera in the South China. Bopuxue Zazhi, 15, 237-242.

[33]   Zeng, L.-M., Wang, C.-J., Su, J.-Y., L. Du, Owen, N. L., Lu, Y., Lu, N. and Zheng, Q.-T. (2001) Flavonoids from the red alga Acanthophora spicifera. Chinese Journal of Chemistry, 19, 1097-1100. doi:10.1002/cjoc.20010191116

[34]   Güven, K., Percot, A. and Sezik, E. (2010) Alkaloids in marine algae. Marine Drugs, 8, 269-284. doi:10.3390/md8020269

[35]   Martin, R.F., Ramos, M.F., Herfibdal, L., Sousa, J.A., Skaerven, K. and Vasconcelos, V.M. (2008) Antimicrobial and cytotoxic assessment of marine cyanobacteria: Synechocystis and Synechococcus. Marine Drugs, 6, 1-11. doi:10.3390/md6010001

[36]   Del Val, A.G., Platas, G., Basilio, A., Cabello, A., Gorrochateui, J., Suay, I., Vicente, F., Portillo, E., DeRio, M.J., Reina, G.G. and Pelaez, F. (2001) Screening of antimicrobial activities in red, green and brown macroalgae from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). International Microbiology, 4, 35-40.

[37]   Lavanya, R. and Veerappan, N. (2011) Antibacterial potential of six seaweeds collected from gulf of mannar of southeast coast of India. Advances in Biological Research, 5, 38-44.

[38]   Vairappan, C.S., Daitoh, M., Suzuki, M., Abe, T. and Masuda, M. (2001) Antibacterial halogenated metabites from the Malysianlaurencia species. Phytochemistry, 58, 291- 297. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(01)00243-6

[39]   Oh, K.B., Lee, J., Chung, S., Shin, J., Shin, H.J., Kim, H.K. and Lee, H.S. (2008) Antimicrobial activities of the bromophenols from the red alga Odonthalia corymbifera and some synthetic derivatives. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 18, 104-108.

[40]   Venkateswarlu, S. Panchagnula, G.K. Gottumukkala, A.L. and Subbaraju, G.V. (2007) Synthesis, structural revision, and biological activities of 4’-chloroaurone, a metabolite of marine brown alga Spatoglossum variabile. Tetrahedron, 63, 6909-6914. doi:10.1016/j.tet.2007.04.048

[41]   Yang, L., Peng, L.S. and Zhou, S. (2006) Lactones from a brown alga endophytic fungus (No. ZZF36) from the South China Sea and their antimicrobial activities. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 16, 4205-4208. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2006.05.081

[42]   Febles, C.I., Arias, A., Hardisson, A. and Lopez, A.S. (1995) Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Canary species of Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta. Phytotherapy Resarch, 9, 385-387. doi:10.1002/ptr.2650090517

[43]   Perez, R.M, Avila JG, Perez G. (1990) Antimicrobial activity of some American algae. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 29, 111-118. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(90)90104-2

[44]   Moreau, J., Pesando, D. and Bernad, P. (1988) Seasonal variations in the production of antifungal substances by some Dictyotales (brown algae) from French Mediterranean coast. Hydrobiology, 162, 157-162. doi:10.1007/BF00014538