JWARP  Vol.4 No.10 , October 2012
Determination of Genotoxic Pollution of Some Hospital Wastewater with Salmonella Ames Test
Wastewater of hospitals contains materials that would be a threat to alive. These water needs to be checked by a biological purification before leaving to nature. Hospital wastewater has differences than domestic waste because of especially blood, body waste, drugs, chemicals, medical device waste and radioactive materials. We aimed to determine genotoxic effects of total pollution in hospital wastewater on alive by Salmonella microsome test method. In this study, we decided on three hospitals which weren’t checked as biological purification of waste. The samples were taken for six 1-week periods between March 2009 and June 2009. Mutagenite studies of samples taken from hospitals were made with ,Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. Wastewater samples were evaporated. 27 different test materials were prepared using DMSO, ethanol and acetone solvents, two different MGA plaques were used for each test material. Each experiment was made for 3 times with known results of mutagens and we made it ready for “Ames” test method. We had genotoxicity 50% in Istanbul University Medical Faculty Hospital, 56% in Haseki Hospital and 61% in Vak?f Gureba Hospital. According to three hospitals result there are 9 positives, 9 negatives in DMSO; 9 positives, 9 negatives in ethanol; 12 positives, 6 negatives in acetone. These values are totally 56%. Our results give important information about mutagenic effect of total pollution in hospital wastewater. It is first time researched in Turkey that effect on DNA of pollution is from hospital wastewaters. In prospective studies, it is necessary to use this system as a method to monitor mutagenic genotoxic pollution in hospital wastewaters. These kinds of studies present applicability and importance of our method because of placing in the literature. Method constitutes a new approach to check mutagenite of pollution in hospital wastewater.
Cite this paper
A. Atasoy, E. Karakece, M. Petek, L. Alpsoy and A. Kiran, "Determination of Genotoxic Pollution of Some Hospital Wastewater with Salmonella Ames Test," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 4 No. 10, 2012, pp. 859-865. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.410100.
[1]   K. Kuümerer, “Drugs in the Environment: Emission of Drugs Diagnostic Aids and Disinfectants into Wastewater by Hospitals in Relation to Other Sources—A Review,” Chemosphere, Vol. 45, 2001, pp. 957-956. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(01)00144-8

[2]   M. Koivusalo, J. J. Jaakkola and T. Vartiainen, “Drinking Water Mutagenicity and Gastrointestinal and Urinary Tract Cancers: An Ecological Study in Finland,” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84, 1994, pp. 1223- 1228. doi:10.2105/AJPH.84.8.1223

[3]   U. Rannug and C. Ramel, “Mutagenicity of Waste Prod- ucts from Vinly Chloride Industries,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Vol. 2, No. 5, 1977, pp. 1019-1029. doi:10.1080/15287397709529500

[4]   J. L. Epler, J. A. Young, A. A. Hardigree, T. K. Rao, M. R. Guerin, I. B. Rubin, C. H. Ho and B. R. Clark, “Analytical and Biological Analyses of Test Material from the Synthetic Fuel Technologies. I. Mutagenicity of Crude Oils Determined by the S. typhimurium/Microsomal Activation System,” Mutation Research, Vol. 57, No. 3, 1979, pp. 265-276. doi:10.1016/0027-5107(78)90211-7

[5]   E. R. Netsmann, E. G. Lee, T. I. Matula, G. R. Douglas and J. C. Mueller, “Mutagenicity of Constituents Identified in Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents Using the Salmonella/Mammalian-Micro Some Assay,” Mutation Research, Vol. 79, No. 3, 1981, pp. 203-212.

[6]   Y. Manabe, T. Kinouchi, K. Wakiasaka, I. Tahara and Y. Ohnishi, “Mutagenic 1-Nitropyrene in Waste Water from Oil-Water Separating Tanks of Gasoline Stations and in Used Crankcase Oil,” Environmental Mutagen, Vol. 6, No. 5, 1984, pp. 669-681. doi:10.1002/em.2860060505

[7]   A. Kamiya and. Y. Ose, “Study of the Behaviour of Mutagens in Waste Water and Emission Gas from a Mu- nicipal Incinerator Evaluated by Means of the Ames As- say,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 65, 1987, pp. 109-120. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(87)90165-3

[8]   B. Jolibois and M. Guerbet, “Hospital Wastewater Geno- toxicity,” Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Vol. 50, No. 2, 2006, pp. 189-196. doi:10.1093/annhyg/mei051

[9]   A. Sundvall, H. Marklund and U. Rannug, “The Mutagenicity on Salmonella typhimurim of Nitrobenzoic Acids and Other Wastewater Compents Generated in the Production of Nitrobenzoic Acids and Nitrotoluenes,” Mutation Research, Vol. 137, No. 2-3, 1984, pp. 71-78. doi:10.1016/0165-1218(84)90094-6

[10]   R. L. Anderson, W. E. Bishop and R. L. Campbell, “A Review of the Environmental and Mammalian Toxicology of Nitrilotriacetic Acid,” Critical Reviews in Toxicology, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1985, pp. 1-102. doi:10.3109/10408448509023766

[11]   F. Giuliani, T. Koller, F. E. Wurgler, et al., “Detection of Genotoxic Activity in Native Hospital Waste Water by the umuC Test,” Mutation Research, Vol. 368, 1996, pp. 49-57. doi:10.1016/S0165-1218(96)90039-7

[12]   T. Steger-Hartmann, K. Kümmerer and A. Hartmann, “Biological Degradation of Cyclophosphamide and Its Occurrence in Sewage Water,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 36, 1997, pp. 174-179. doi:10.1006/eesa.1996.1506

[13]   A. Hartmann, E. M. Golet, S. Gartisier, et al., “Primary DNA Damage but not Mutagenicity Correlates with Ciprofloxacin Concentrations in German Hospital Waste- waters,” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 36, 1999, pp. 115-119. doi:10.1007/s002449900449

[14]   B. Jolibois, M. Guerbet and S.Vassal, “Detection of Hospital Wastewater Genotoxicity with the SOS Chromotest and Ames Fluctuation Test,” Chemosphere, Vol. 51, 2003, pp. 539-543. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00867-6

[15]   J. McCann, N. E. Springarn, J. Kobori and B. N. Ames, “Detection of Carcinogens as Mutagens: Bacterial Tester Strains with R Factor Plasmids,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 75, No. 3, 1975, pp. 979-983.

[16]   P. J. Langer, W. G. Shanabruch and G. C. Walker, “Functional Organization of Plasmid pKMlOl,” Journal of Bacteriology, Vol. 145, 1981, pp. 1310-1316.

[17]   B. J. Dean, T. M. Brooks, G. Hodson-Walker and D. H. Hutson, “Genetic Toxicology Testing of 41 Industrial Chemicals,” Mutation Research, Vol. 153, 1985, pp. 57- 77. doi:10.1016/0165-1110(85)90005-3

[18]   D. Maron and B. N. Ames, “Revised Methods for the Salmonella Mutagenicity Test,” Mutation Research, Vol. 113, 1983, pp. 173-215. doi:10.1016/0165-1161(83)90010-9

[19]   P. K. Hopke, M. J. Plewa and P. Stapleton, “Reduction of Mutagenicity of Municipal Wastewaters by Land Treatment,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 66, 1987, pp. 193-202. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(87)90087-8

[20]   P. A. White, J. B. Rasmussen and C. Blaise, “Comparing the Presence Potency and Potential Hazard of Genotoxins Exracted from a Broad Range of Industrial Effluents,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1996, pp. 116-139. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2280(1996)27:2<116::AID-EM7>3.0.CO;2-E

[21]   R. G. Stahl, “The Genetic Toxicology of Organic Com- pounds in Natural Waters and Wastewaters,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 22, 1991, pp. 94-125. doi:10.1016/0147-6513(91)90051-P

[22]   U. Rannug and C. Ramel, “Mutagenicity of Waste Products from Vinly Chloride Industries,” J.Toxicol. Environ. Health, Vol. 2, No. 5, 1977, pp. 1019-1029. doi:10.1080/15287397709529500

[23]   W. K. De-Raat, A. O. Hanstveit and. J. K. De-Kreuk, “The Role of Mutagenicity Testing in the Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Industrial Dicharges into the Aquatic Environment,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1985, pp. 33-41. doi:10.1016/0278-6915(85)90217-0

[24]   S. Kotelevtsev, V. Kozlov, P. Iu and L. I. Stepanova, “Ecological and Toxicological Control over the Status of the Environment by the Methods of Physicochemical Biology,” Nauchnye Doklady Vysshe? Shkoly, Biologicheskie Nauki, Vol. 1, 1986, pp. 19-30.

[25]   N. Cerna, V. Hajek, E. Stejskalova, L. Dobias, Z. Zudova and P. Rossner, “Environmental Genotox- icity Monitoring Using S. typhimurium Strains as Indicator System,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 101, No. 1-2, 1991, pp. 139-147. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(91)90113-S