NS  Vol.2 No.7 , July 2010
Formation characterization and rheological properties of zirconia and ceria-stabilized zirconia
ABSTRACT
Zirconia and ceria-stabilized zirconia (12Ce-TZP) were synthesized by the dicarboxylate coprecipitation technique such as fumarate, succinate, tartarate and adipate. The formation of these dicarboxylate precursors was studied by elemental analysis, thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The precursors were further decomposed at 650oC for 2 hours to form respective zirconia and ceria-stabilized zirconia. The composition of these oxides was checked by Atomic absorption spectrometer and Energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The structural and morphological characterization of these oxides was done by using X-ray diffraction analysis, surface area, scanning electron micrographs and particle size distribution analysis. These properties were found depending to great extent on the nature of the precursors. The zirconia and ceria-stabilized zirconia obtained from adipate precursor were found to be good for slip- casting. The slips (i.e., suspensions) of these oxides with different solid contents were prepared at different pH with distilled water and ethanol as dispersing agents, with and without deflocculant. The suspension rheological flow (i.e., variation of shear stress and viscosity with shear rate) was determined. The minimum viscosities were observed at pH = 10.16 for ZrO2- water and pH = 10.26 for 12Ce–TZP-water system. The slip, green and sedimentation bulk density were measured.

Cite this paper
Nikumbh, A. and Adhyapak, P. (2010) Formation characterization and rheological properties of zirconia and ceria-stabilized zirconia. Natural Science, 2, 694-706. doi: 10.4236/ns.2010.27086.
References
[1]   Hannink, R.H.J., Kelly, P.M. and Muddle, B.C. (2000) Transformation toughening in zirconia-containing ceramics. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 83(3), 461-487.

[2]   Marray, E.P., Tsai, T. and Barnett, S.A. (1999) A direct- methane fuel cell with a ceria-based anode. Nature, 400(6745), 649-651.

[3]   Haase, F. and Sauer, F. (1998) The surface structure of sulfated zirconia: Periodic ab initio study of sulfuric acid adsorbed on ZrO2(101) and ZrO2(001). Journal of the American Chemical Society, 120(51), 13503-13512.

[4]   Chandwick, A.V. (2000) Nanotechnology: Solid progress in ion conduction. Nature, 408(6815), 925-926.

[5]   Steele, B.C.H. and Heinzel, A. (2001) Materials for fuel-cell technologies. Nature, 414(6861), 345-352.

[6]   Wu, N.L., Wang, S.Y. and Rusakova, I.A. (1999) Inhibition of crystallite growth in the sol-gel synthesis of nano- crystalline metal oxides. Science, 285(5432), 1375-1377.

[7]   Maczka, M., Lutz, E.T.G., Verbeck, H.J., Oskam, K., Meijerink, A., Hanuza, J. and Stuivinga, M. (1999) Spectroscopic studies of dynamically compacted monoclinic ZrO2. Journal of Physics and Chemistry Solids, 60(12), 1909-1914.

[8]   Park, S., Vohs, J.M. and Gorte, R.J. (2000) Direct oxidation of hydrocarbons in a solid-oxide fuel cell. Nature 404(6775), 265-267.

[9]   Cheung, T.K. and Gates, B.C. (1997) Activation of ethane in the presence of solid acids: Sulfated zirconia, iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia, and zeolites. Journal of Catalysis, 168(2), 522-531.

[10]   Sayama, K. and Arakawa, H. (1993) Photocatalytic decomposition of water and photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide over zirconia catalyst. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 97(3), 531-533.

[11]   Shi, J.L. (1999) Relation between coarsening and densification in solid-state sintering of ceramics: Experimental test on superfine zirconia powder compacts. Journal of Materials Research, 14(4), 1389-1397.

[12]   Subbarao, E.C. (1981) Advances in ceramics. Science and Technology of Zirconia, Heuer, A.H. and Hobbs, L.W., Eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 3, 1-24.

[13]   Garvie, R.C., Hannink R.H. and Pascoe, R.T. (1975) Ceramic steel. Nature, 258(5537), 703-704.

[14]   Yashima, M., Morimoto, K., Ishizawa, N. and Yoshimura, M. (1993) Zirconia–ceria solid solution synthesis and the temperature–time–transformation diagram for the 1:1 composition. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 76(7), 1745-1750.

[15]   Murugave, P., Kalaiselvam, M., Raju, A.R. and Rao, C.N.R. (1997) Sub-micrometre spherical particles of TiO2, ZrO2 and PZT by nebulized spray pyrolysis of metal–organic precursors. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 7(8), 1433-1438.

[16]   Li, M., Feng, Z., Xiong, G., Ying, P., Xin, Q. and Li, C. (2001) Phase transformation in the surface region of zirconia detected by uv raman spectroscopy. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 105(34), 8107-8111.

[17]   Yashma, M., Kakihana, M., Ishii, K., Ikuma Y. and Yoshimura, M. (1996) Synthesis of metastable tetragonal (t′) zirconia-calcia solid solution by pyrolysis of organic precursors and coprecipitation route. Journal of Materials Research, 11(6), 1410-1420.

[18]   Duh, J.G., Dai, H.T. and Hsu, W.Y. (1988) Synthesis and sintering behaviour in CeO2–ZrO2 ceramics. Journal of Materials Science, 23(6), 2786-2791.

[19]   Sato, T., Dosaka, K., Yoshika, T., Okuwaka, A., Yorii, K. and Onodera, Y. (1992) Sintering of ceria-doped tetragonal zirconia crystallized in organic solvents, water, and air. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 75(3), 552-556.

[20]   Maschio, S., Baxhiorrini A. and Lucchini, E. (1998) Sintering behaviour of mechanically alloyed and coprecipitated 12Ce–PSZ powders. Journal of Materials Science, 33(13), 3437-3441.

[21]   Yashima, M., Ohtake, K., Kakihana, M. and Yoshimura, M. (1994) Synthesis of metastable tetragonal (t') zirconia– ceria solid solutions by the polymerized complex method. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 77(10), 2773- 2776.

[22]   Caruso, R., Benavidez, E., de Sanctis, O., Caracoche, M.C., Ravas, P.C., Cervera, M., Caneiro, A. and Serquis, A. (1997) Phase structure and thermal evolution in coating films and powders obtained by the sol-gel process: Part II. ZrO2-2.5 mol% Y2O3. Journal of Materials Research, 12(10), 2594-2601.

[23]   Lumas, D.G., Lascalea G.E. and Walsoe de Reca, N.E. (1998) Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline powders for partially stabilized zirconia ceramics. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 18(9), 1217-1221.

[24]   Venkatachari, K.R., Huang, D., Ostrander, S.P., Shulze W.A. and Stangle, G.C. (1995) Preparation of nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia. Journal of Materials Research, 10(3), 756-761.

[25]   Xiaming, D., Qingfeng, L. and Yuying, T. (1993) Study of phase formation in spray pyrolysis of ZrO2 and ZrO2?Y2O3 powders. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 76(3), 760-762.

[26]   Srinivasan, R., DeAngeles, R. and Davis, B.H. (1986) Factors influencing the stability of the tetragonal form of zirconia. Journal of Materials Research, 1(4), 583-588.

[27]   Kresge, C.T., Leonowicz, M.E., Roth, W.J., Vartuli, J.C., and Beck, J.S. (1992) Ordered mesoporous molecular sieves synthesized by a liquid-crystal template mechanism. Nature, 359(6397), 710-712.

[28]   Huo, Q., Margolese, D.I., Ciesla, U., Feng, P., Gier, T.E., Sieger, P., Leon, R., Petroff, P.M., Schuth, B. and Stucky, G.D. (1994) Generalized synthesis of periodic surfactant/inorganic composite materials. Nature, 368(6469), 317-321.

[29]   Wang Y., Yin, L., Palhcik, O., Hacohen, Y.R., Koltypin, Y. and Gedanken, A. (2001) Sonochemical synthesis of layered and hexagonal yttrium?zirconium oxides. Chemistry of Materials, 13(4), 1248-1251.

[30]   Liang, J., Jiang, X., Liu, G., Deng, Z., Zhuang, J., Li, F. and Li, Y. (2003) Characterization and synthesis of pure ZrO2 nanopowders via sonochemical method. Materials Research Bulletin, 38(1), 161-168.

[31]   Coyle, T.W., Coblenz, W.S. and Bender, B.A. (1983) Toughness, strength, and microstructures of sintered CeO2-doped ZrO2 alloys. American Ceramic Society Bulletin, 62(12), 966-967.

[32]   Heathote, R. (1993) Sustainable humanosphere: Bulletin of research institute for sustainable humanosphere. Ame- rican Ceramic Society Bulletin, 72(6), 123-128.

[33]   Taguchi, H., Takahashi, Y. and Miyamoto, H. (1985) Slip casting of partially stabilized zirconia. American Cera- mic Society Bulletin, 64(2), 325-329.

[34]   Lange, F.F. (1989) Powder processing science and technology for increased reliability. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 72(1), 3-15.

[35]   Raedy, M.J. (1993) Optimized processing ceramics. International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology, 47-53.

[36]   Taguchi, H., Takahashiand Y. and Miyamoto, H. (1985) Effect of milling on slip casting of partially stabilized zirconia. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 68(10), C264-C265.

[37]   Leong, Y.K., Katiforis, N., Harding, D.B.O.C., Healy T.W. and Boger, D.V. (1993) Polymeric stabilization of colloidal dispersions. Journal of Materials Proceedings on Manufacturing Science, 1, 445-453.

[38]   Leong, Y.K., Boger, D.V. and Parris, D. (1991) Surface chemistry and rheological properties of zirconia suspensions. Journal of Rheology, 35(1), 149-165.

[39]   Hashiba, M., Okamoto, H., Nurishi, Y. and Hiramatsu, K. (1989) Dispersion of ZrO2 particles in aqueous suspensions by ammonium polyacrylate. Journal of Materials Science, 24(3), 873-876.

[40]   Nikumbh, A.K., Schmidt, H., Martin, K. and Porz, F. (1991) Slip casting of partially stabilized zirconia. Journal of Materials Science, 26(13), 3649-3656.

[41]   Suarez, G., Albano, M.P., Garrido, L.B. and Aglietti, E.F. (2007) Dispersion of concentrated aqueous yttria-stabi- lized zirconia with ammonium polyacrylate. Ceramics International, 33(6), 925-929

[42]   Shojai, F., Pettersson, A.B.A., Mantyla, T. and Rosenholm, J.B. (2000) Electrostatic and electrosteric stabilization of aqueous slips of 3Y-ZrO2 powder. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 20(3), 277-283.

[43]   Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards, PDF No. 17-923.

[44]   Dodd, A.C. and McCornick, P.G. (1999) Synthesis and processing of ultrafine Mg-PSZ powder. Journal of Metastable and Nanocrystalline Materials, 312-314, 221- 228.

[45]   Nettleship, I. and Stevens, R. (1987) Tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP)—a review, International Journal of High Technology Ceramics, 3(1), 1-32.

[46]   Klug, H.P. and Alexander, L.E. (1954) X-Ray diffraction procedure. Wiley-Interscience, New York, Ch.9.

[47]   MacGeary, R.K. (1961) Mechanical packing of spherical particles. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 44(10), 513-522.

[48]   Laarz, E., Zhmud, B.V. and Bergstroem, L. (2000) Dissolution and deagglomeration of silicon nitride in aqueous medium. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 83(10), 2394-2400.

[49]   Tari, G., Ferreira, J.M.F. and Lyckfeldt, O.L. (1998) Influence of the stabilising mechanism and solid loading on slip casting of alumina. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 18(5), 479-486.

[50]   Sigmund, W.M., Bell, N.S. and Bergstrom, L. (2000) Novel powder-processing methods for advanced ceramics. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 83(7), 1557-1574.

[51]   Bergstrom, L. (1998) Shear thinning and shear thickening of concentrated ceramic suspensions. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 133(1-2), 151-155.

[52]   Moreno, R. (1992) The role of slip additives in tape- casting technology. Part I: Solvents and dispersants. American Ceramic Society Bulletin, 71(10), 1521-1531.

[53]   Smart, S.T.C.R. and Nowotny, J. (1998) Ceramic interface—properties and applications. IOM Communications Ltd., London, 433-460.

[54]   Greenwood, R. and Bergstrom, L. (1997) Electroacoustic and rheological properties of aqueous Ce-ZrO2 (Ce-TZP) suspensions. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 17(4), 537-548.

 
 
Top