NS  Vol.4 No.8 , August 2012
Structural analysis, metamorphism, and geochemistry of the Archean granitoids-greenstones of the Sukumaland Greenstone Belt around Geita Hills, Northern Tanzania
ABSTRACT
Greenstone rocks, which include Banded Iron Formations (BIFs), tuffs, volcanic flows (basalt, andesite and rhyolite), and clastic sedimentary rocks (shale-mudstone, greywacke-sandstone and conglomerate), crop out around Geita Hills and are flanked by granites and granodiorites. BIFs and tuffs occupy larger area than other lithological units, which crop out as patches. Structural analysis indicates that layers of green-stone rocks are folded and display a regional fold axis with an attitude of 320o/40o. Low-grade metamorphic mineral assemblages (actinolite-epidote-chlorite in basalts and muscovite-epidote-chlorite in granitoids) are common in these rocks; this indicates a regional metamorphism at greenschist facies. However, BIFs and basalts are locally metamorphosed to epidote-amphibolite and amphibolite facies. Basalts belong to the tholeiite series whereas granites, diorites and rhyolites belong to the calcalkaline series. Chondrite normalized rare earth element pattern of basalt is flat and plot slightly below the average N-MORB values suggesting the enrichment of the light rare earth elements, which means that mantle magma source was an E-MORB. Granitoids and rhyolites have strong affinities to the continental arc source magma displaying strong enrichments in the LREEs with (La/Sm)N values ranging between 2.53 and 3.95 in rhyolites and between 4.08 and 5.40 in granitoids. The granitoids are classified as the I-type synorogenic metaluminous granites and granodiorites. Geochemical signatures suggest that the Geita Hills basalts erupted at the enriched mid ocean ridge setting of the back arc setting, and the granites, granodiorite and rhyolite formed in a volcanic arc setting particularly the continental arc.

Cite this paper
Boniface, N. and Mruma, A. (2012) Structural analysis, metamorphism, and geochemistry of the Archean granitoids-greenstones of the Sukumaland Greenstone Belt around Geita Hills, Northern Tanzania. Natural Science, 4, 526-535. doi: 10.4236/ns.2012.48070.
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