OJPM  Vol.2 No.3 , August 2012
Relationships of youth risk behaviors with norm-consciousness and resilience among Japanese high school students
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of norm-consciousness and resilience on the prevention of youth risk behaviors among Japanese high school students. Data of a national survey, Japan Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011, was used for this analysis. The subjects were 9778 students (5027 males, 4751 females) in grades 10-12 in 102 schools randomly selected from among high schools throughout Japan. When multiple regression analysis was carried out using four subdomains of norm-consciousness and three subdomains of resilience as the independent variables and nine risk behaviors as the dependent variables, the subdomains of norm-consciousness showed significant positive standardized partial regression coefficients for eight risk behaviors for both males and females. In particular, “current alcohol use” and “ever had sexual intercourse” showed the largest standardized partial regression coefficients for the norm-consciousness in school, and “current cigarette use” showed that for the norm-consciousness in community. The subdomains of resilience showed significant positive standardized partial regression coefficients for five risk behaviors for males and for six those for females. The results of this study suggest that the norm-consciousness is an important protective factor to comprehensively prevent risk behaviors among Japanese adolescents. It is expected to be effective to enhance the norm-consciousness particularly in school and community. In addition, resilience should also be emphasized as a factor to prevent specific risk behaviors.

Cite this paper
Kataoka, C. , Nozu, Y. , Kawahara, S. , Kuroiwa, H. , Kudo, M. , Sato, Y. , Kubo, M. and Watanabe, M. (2012) Relationships of youth risk behaviors with norm-consciousness and resilience among Japanese high school students. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2, 306-311. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.23044.
References
[1]   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010) Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 59, 1-142.

[2]   Mirestean, N. and Irimie, S.I. (2010) Aspects of tobacco, alcohol and drugs consumption among students from Romania. 20th International Union for Health Promotion and Education World Conference on Health Promotion, Geneva, 11-15 July 2010.

[3]   Health Promotion Research and Development Unit of the Medical Research Council, South Africa (2010) The 2nd South African National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2008.

[4]   Park, S.-W. (2010) Surveillance systems for health risk behaviors and health levels among adolescents in Korea. Japanese Journal of School Health, 52, 116-124 (in Japanese).

[5]   Nozu, Y., Watanabe, M., Watanabe, M., et al. (2006) Youth risk behavior among Japanese high school students: Results of the 2001 national survey. Japanese Journal of School Health, 48, 430-447 (in Japanese).

[6]   Ichimura, K., Shimomura, Y. and Watanabe, M. (2001) Harmful substance abuse, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and perceived norms among junior and senior high school students. Japanese Journal of School Health, 43, 39-49 (in Japanese).

[7]   Kataoka, C., Nozu, Y., Kubo, M., Sato, Y. and Watanabe, M. (2010) Relative influence of self-esteem and norm-consciousness on prevalence of youth risk behavior among Japanese high school students. School Health, 6, 6-11.

[8]   Mita, M. (1966) Theory of value consciousness. Kobundo Publishers Inc., Tokyo (in Japanese).

[9]   Masten, A.S., Best, K.M. and Garmezy, N. (1990) Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 425-444. doi:10.1017/S0954579400005812

[10]   Mark, W.F. (2004) Risk and resilience in childhood: An ecological perspective. 2nd Edition, NASW Press, Washington DC.

[11]   Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2011) Annual health, labour and welfare report 2009-2010 (in Japanese). http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/wp/wp-hw4/index.html

[12]   Statistics Bureau (2010) Annual report on the labour force survey (in Japanese). http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/roudou/report/2010/index.htm

[13]   Uehara, C., Nozu, Y., Kubo, M., Sato, Y. and Watanabe, M. (2008) Reliability and validity of norm-consciousness scale for youth risk behavior. Japanese Journal of School Health, 50, 159-165 (in Japanese).

[14]   Oshio, A., Nakata, M., Kaneko, H. and Nagamine, S. (2002) Development and validation of an adolescent resilience scale. Japanese Journal of Counseling Science, 35, 57-65 (in Japanese).

[15]   Dan, G. (2010) Highlights from the 2009 New Mexico high school youth risk and resiliency survey. http://nmhealth.org/ERD/HealthData/pdf/ER%20YRRS%20092410.pdf

[16]   Ritesh, M., William, J.M., Antronette, K.Y., Yao, L. and Minal, P. (2009) Resilience and patterns of health risk behaviors in California adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 48, 291-297. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.12.013

[17]   Cabinet Office, Government of Japan (2011) Annual reports on suicide prevention (in Japanese). http://www8.cao.go.jp/jisatsutaisaku/whitepaper/w-2011/html/index.html

 
 
Top