ABSTRACT One hundred and fifty years ago, Charles Darwin’s on the Origin of Species explained the evolution of species through evolution by natural selection. To date, there is no simple piece of evidence demonstrating this concept across species. Chargaff’s first parity rule states that comple-mentary base pairs are in equal proportion across DNA strands. Chargaff’s second parity rule, in-consistently followed across species, states that the base pairs are in equal proportion within DNA strands [G ≈ C, T ≈ A and (G + A) ≈ (C + T)]. Using genomic libraries, we analyzed the extent to which DNA samples followed Chargaff’s second parity rule. In organelle DNA, nucleotide rela-tionships were heteroskedastic. After classifying organelles into chloroplasts and mitochondria, and then into plant, vertebrate, and invertebrate I and II mitochondria, nucleotide relationships were expressed by linear regression lines. All regression lines based on nuclear and organelle DNA crossed at the same point. This is a simple demonstration of a common ancestor across species.
Cite this paper
Sorimachi, K. (2010) Genomic data provides simple evidence for a single origin of life. Natural Science, 2, 519-525. doi: 10.4236/ns.2010.25065.
 Zuckerkandl, E. and Pauling, L.B. (1962) Molecular disease, evolution, and genetic heterogeneity. In: M. Kasha and B. Pullman, Ed., Horizons in Biochemistry, New York Academic, New York, 189-225.
Dayhoff, M.O., Park, C.M. and McLaughlin, P.J. (1977) Building a phylogenetic trees: Cytochrome C. In: Dayhoff, M.O. Ed., Atlas of protein sequence and structure. National Biomedical Foundation, Washington, D. C., 5, 7-16.
Sogin, M.L., Elwood, H.J. and Gudeson, J.H. (1986) Evolutionary diversity of eukaryotic small subunit rRNA genes. Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences, 83, 1383-1387.
DePouplana, L., Turner, R.J., Steer, B.A. and Schimmel, P. (1998) Genetic code origins: tRNAs older than their synthetases. Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences, 95(19), 11295-11300.
Doolittle, W.F. and Brown, J.R. (1994) Tempo, mode, the progenote, and the universal root. Proceedings of the Na-tional Academy Sciences, 91(15), 6721-6728.
Maizels, N. and Weiner, A.M. (1994) Phylogeny from function: evidence from the molecular fossil record that tRNA originated in replication, not translation. Proceed-ings of the National Academy Sciences, 91(15), 6729-6734.
Sakaguchi, M., Nakayama, T., Hashimoto, T. and Inouye, I. (2006) Phylogeny of the centrohelida inferred from SSU rRNA, tubulin, and actin genes. Journal of Molecu-lar Evolution, 61(6), 765-775.
Sanger, F. and Coulson, A.R. (1975) A rapid method for determining sequences in DNA by primed synthesis with DNA polymerase. Journal of Molecular Biology, 94(3), 441-446.
Maxam, A.M. and Gilbert, W. (1977) A new method for sequencing DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences, 74(2), 560-564.
Fleischmann, R.D., Adams, M.D., White, O., Clayton, R.A., Kirkness, E.F., Kerlavage, A.R., et al. (1995) Whole-genome random sequencing and assembly of Haemophilus influenzae Rd. Science, 269(5223), 496-512.
Lander, E.S., Linton, L.M., Birren, B., Nusbaum, C., Zody, M.C., Baldwin, J., Devon, K., et al.(2001) Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature, 409(6822), 860-921.
Venter, J.C., Adams, M.D., Myers, E.W., Li, P.W., Mural, R.J., Sutton, G.G., et al. (2001) The sequence of the hu-man genome. Science, 291(5507), 1304-1351.
Sorimachi, K. (2009) Evolution from primitive life to Homo sapiens based on visible genome structures: The amino acid world. Natural Science, 1, 107-119.
Okayasu, T. and Sorimachi, K. (2008) Organisms can essentially be classified according to two codon patterns. Amino Acids, 36(2), 261-271.
Watson, J.D. and Crick, F.H.C. (1953) Genetical implica-tions of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid. Nature, 171(4361), 964-967.
Chargaff, E. (1950) Chemical specificity of nucleic acids and mechanism of their enzymatic degradation. Experi-mentia, 6(6), 201-209.
Rudner, R., Karkas, J.D. and Chargaff, E. (1968) Separa-tion of B. subtilis DNA into complementary strands. 3. Direct analysis. Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences, 60(3), 921-922.
Sorimachi, K. (2009) A proposed solution to the historic puzzle of Chargaff’s second parity rule. The Open Ge-nomics Journal, 2(3), 12-14.
Sorimachi, K. and Okayasu, T. (2004) An evaluation of evolutionary theories based on genomic structures in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Mycoscience, 45(5), 345-350.
Sorimachi, K. and Okayasu, T. (2008) Codon evolution is governed by linear formulas. Amino Acids, 34(4), 661-668.
Mitchell, D. and Bridge, R. (2006) A test of Chargaff’s second rule. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 340(1), 90-94.
Nikolaou, C. and Almirantis, Y. (2006) Deviations from Chargaff’s second parity rule in organelle DNA insights into the evolution of organelle genomes. Gene, 381, 34-41.
Bell, S.J. and Forsdyke, D.R. (1999) Deviations from Chargaff’s second parity rule with direction of transcrip-tion. The Journal of Theoretical Biology, 197(1), 63-76.
Sorimachi, K. and Okayasu, T. (2008) Universal rules governing genome evolution expressed by linear formulas. The Open Genomics Journal, 1(11), 33-43.
Glass, J.I., Lefkowitz, E.J., Glass, J.S., Chen, E.Y. and Cassell, G.H. (2000) The complete sequence of the mu-cosal pathogen Ureaplasma urealyticum. Nature, 407(6805), 757-762.
Brown, W.M., George, M.Jr. and Wilson, A.C. (1979) Rapid evolution of animal mitochondrial DNA. Proceed-ings of the National Academy Sciences, 76(4), 1967-1971.
Sorimachi, K. and Okayasu, T. (2004) Classification of eubacteria based on their complete genome: Where does Mycoplasmataceae belong? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B (Supplement), 271(4), S127-S130.
Fraser, C.M., Norris, S.J., Weinstock, G.M., White, O., Sutton, G.G., Dodson, R., et al. (1998) Complete genome sequence of Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete. Science, 281(5375), 375-388.
Raven, J.A. and Allen, J.F. (2003) Genomics and chlo-roplast evolution: what did cyanobacteria do for plants? Genome Biology, 4(3), 209-215.
Gray, M.W., Burger, G. and Lang, B.F. (1999) Mito-chondrial evolution. Science, 283(5407), 1476-1481.
Gilbert, W. (1986) The RNA world. Nature, 319, 618.
Sorimachi, K. (1999) Evolutionary changes reflected by the cellular amino acid composition. Amino Acids, 17(2), 207-226.
Sorimachi, K., Itoh, T., Kawarabayasi, Y., Okayasu, T., Akimoto, K. and Niwa, A. (2001) Conservation of basic pattern of cellular amino acid composition during bio-logical evolution and the putative amino acid composition of primitive life forms. Amino Acids, 21(4), 393-399.