ABSTRACT The Z-scan technique is a simple and effective tool for determining nonlinear optical properties of materials. This technique is utilized in meas-urement of urea and uric acid in blood. The nonlinear refractive index of urea and uric acid are found to vary linearly with concentration. Hence by calculating the nonlinear refractive index it is possible to measure their concentra-tion in the sample. The results of this method are found to be in good agreement with the conventional colorimetric method.
Cite this paper
Dhinaa, A. and Palanisamy, P. (2010) Optical nonlinearity in measurement of urea and uric acid in blood. Natural Science, 2, 106-111. doi: 10.4236/ns.2010.22017.
 Peters, J.P. and Van Slyke, D.D. (1946) Quantitative Clinical Chemistry Interpretations, 1, Williams and Wil-kins, Baltimore.
Tietz, N.W. (1986) Textbook of Clinical Chemistry, W.B.Saunders Company, Philadelphia.
Galba′n, J., Andreu, Y., Almenara, M.J., Demarcos, S. and Castillo, J.R. (2001) Direct determination of uric acid in serum by a fluorometric-enzymatic method based on uricase. Talanta, 54, 847-854.
Matos, R.C., Augelli, M.A., Lago, C.L. and Angnes, L. (2000) Flow injection analysis-amperometric determina-tion of ascorbic and uric acids in urine using arrays of gold microelectrodes modified by electrodeposition of palladium. Analytica Chimica Acta, 404, 151-157.
Nakaminami, T., Ito, S.-I., Kuwabata, S. and Yoneyama, H. (1999) Uricase-catalyzed oxidation of uric acid using an artificial electron acceptor and fabrication of am-perometric uric acid sensors with use of a redox ladder polymer. Analytical Chemistry, 71, 1928-1934.
Hasebe, Y., Nawa, K., Ujita, S. and Uchiyama, S. (1998) Highly sensitive flow detection of uric acid based on an intermediate regeneration of uricase. Analyst, 123, 1775- 1780.
Kayamori, Y., Katayama, Y., Matsuyama, T. and Urata, T. (1997) Enzymatic method for assaying uric acid in serum with a new tetrazolium salt produces water-soluble for-mazan dye. Clinical Biochemistry, 30, 595-599.
Miland, E., Ordieres, A.J.M., Blanco, P.T. and Smyth, M.R. (1996) Poly(o-aminophenol) modified bienzyme carbon paste electrode for the detection of uric acid. Ta-lanta, 43, 785-796.
Kayamori, Y. and Katayama, Y. (1994) A sensitive de-termination of uric acid in serum using uricase/ catalase/ formaldehyde dehydrogenase coupled with formate de-hydrogenase. Clinical Biochemistry, 27, 93-97.
Matsubara, C., Yokoi, Y., Nakamichi, N., Takamura, K. and Yakugaku, Z. (1994) Spectrophotometric determina-tion of uric acid in serum using a titanium (IV)-porphyrin complex. Journal of the Pharmaceutical Soci-ety of Japan, 114, 48-53.
Fossati, P., Prencipe, L. and Berti, G. (1980) Use of 3, 5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid/4-ami no-phenazone chromogenic system in direct enzymic assay of uric acid in serum and urine. Clinical Chemistry, 26, 227-231.
Orsonneau, J.L., Massoubre, C., Cabanes, M. and Lus-tenberge, P. (1992) Simple and sensitive determination of urea in serum and urine. Clinical Chemistry, 38, 619- 623.
Naslund, B., Sthale, U., Lundin, A., Anderstam, B., Arner, P. and Bergstrom, J. (1998) Luminometric single step urea assay using ATP-hydrolyzing urease. Clinical Chemistry, 44, 1964-1973.
Rockwell, B.A., Roach, W.P., Rogers, M.E., Mayo, M.W., Toth, C.A., Cain, C.P. and Noojin, G.D. (1993) Nonlinear refraction in vitreous humor. Optics Letter, 18, 1792- 1794.
Arandi, G., Bezerra, Jr., Gomes, A.S.L., Celso P. de Melo. and Cid B. de Arafijo. (1997) Z-scan measurements of the nonlinear refraction in retinal derivatives. Chemical Physics Letters, 276, 445-449.
Dhinaa, A.N., Ahmad, Y.N. and Palanisamy, P.K. (2008) Z-scan technique as a tool for the measurement of blood glucose. Laser Physics, 8, 1212-1216.
Dhinaa, A.N. and Palanisamy, P.K. (2009) Z-scan tech-nique for measurement of total cholesterol and triglycerides in blood. Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences, 2, 295-301.
Sheik Bahae, M., Said, A.A., Wei, T.H., Hagan, D.J. and Vanstryland, E.W. (1990) Sensitive measurement of op-tical nonlinearities using a single beam. Quantum Elec-tron, 26, 760-769.
Qusay, M.A. and Palanisamy, P.K. (2005) Investigation of nonlinear optical properties of organic dye by Z-scan technique using He–Ne laser. Optik, 116, 515-520.
Madhanasundari, R. and Palanisamy, P.K. (2006) Optical nonlinearity of a triphenyl methane dye as studied by Z-scan and selfdiffraction techniques. Modern Physics Letter B, 20, 887-897.
Qusay, M.A.and Palanisamy, P.K. (2006) Z-scan deter-mination of the third order optical nonlinearity of organic dye nileblue chloride. Modern Physics Letter B, 20, 623- 632.
Ahmad, Y.N., Dhinaa, A.N. and Palanisamy, P.K. (2007) Nonlinear optical properties of acid orange 10 dye by Z-scan technique using Ar+ laser. Journal of nonlinear Optical Physics and Materials, 16, 359-366.
Taylor, A.J. and Vadgama, P. (1992) Analytical reviews in clinical biochemistry: the estimation of urea. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 29, 245-264.
Fossati, P., Prencipe, L. and Berti, G. (1980) Use of 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid/4-amino- phenazone chromogenic system in direct enzymic assay of uric acid in serum and urine. Clinical Chemistry, 26, 227-231.